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Penguin deposits leave a trail

SCIENTISTS looking for lost penguins have stumbled upon an effective method: follow their excrement from space.

In remote Antarctica, about one-and-a-half times bigger than the United States, researchers have been unable to figure out just where colonies of emperor penguins live and if their population is in peril.

It is harder still because emperor penguins, featured in the film "March of the Penguins,?breed on sea ice, which scientists say will shrink significantly in the future because of global warming.

Because the large penguins stay on the same ice for months, their excrement stains make them stand out from space.

Scientists at the British Antarctic Survey found this by accident when they were looking at satellite images of their bases. A reddish-brown streak on the colorless ice was right where they knew a colony was, said survey mapping scientist Peter Fretwell.

The stain was penguin excrement and it gave researchers an idea to search for brown stains to find penguins. They found the same trails, usually dark enough to spot from space, all over the continent, he said.

Using satellite data, the scientists found 10 new colonies of penguins, six colonies that had moved from previously mapped positions to new spots and another six that seemed to have disappeared.

Overall, 38 colonies were spotted from above, according to Fretwell's paper, "Penguins From Space?in the journal Global Ecology and Biogeography. "It's a very important result scientifically, even though it's a lighthearted method,?Fretwell said.

Even though Antarctic sea ice has not melted so far, scientists predict it to shrink by one-third by the end of the century, Fretwell said.


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